The overall Kickapoo Valley Reserve land cover can be described through five categories. Approximately 60 percent of the Reserve is forested land, consisting of mixed hardwoods or conifer stands.
Hardwood stands in the Reserve consist primarily of oaks, maples, and hickory.
Conifers in the reserve are dominantly pine and hemlock. Minor populations of cedar and tamarack also exist. In 1970, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources planted white pine plantations throughout the Reserve. As part of the Reserve Master Plan, these will be harvested over time and replanted with mixed hardwoods.
The Kickapoo Valley Reserve leases over 700 acres to area farmers for agriculture production. Crops typically include corn, soy beans, or alfalfa. Users of the Reserve are welcome to hike and hunt through these fields.
Wetlands consist of approximately 17 percent of the Reserve. These areas are important to absorb rain or snow runoff, retain the soil, provide wildlife habitats, and serve as filters for pollutants. Since the displacement of the former Kickapoo valley farms, many agriculture fields have returned to wetlands.
Many open areas of the Reserve are former agricultural fields. The Land Management Plan intends to maintain these as open areas. Native grass plantings include over 75 acres. The Ho-Chunk Nation, Prairie Enthusiasts, Department of Natural Resources Turkey Stamp Fund, and Wisconsin Department of Transportation have assisted in these projects.